SHAIKH MUHIBBULLAH ALLAHABADI
Shaikh muhibbullah Allahabadi was a Sufi of high repute an erudite writer. He played a prominent role in the devolopment of hi mysticism and theosophical religious thought during 17th century A.D but unfortunately historians and biographers did not pay due heed to this great personality.
Shaikh Muhibbullah Allahabadi a great personality of the sufi order Chishtiya Sabiryah was born in 1587 A.D in Sadarpur town near Khairabad in Sitapur District Sadarpur has prodused besides Shaikh Muhibbullah many other great scholars like maulana jafar and Allamah Muhammad asif Shaikh ancesstory is traced back to shaikh Fariduddin Ganj shakar which ultimately goes to Amirul Mominin Hazrat Umar Ibne khattab both from peternal and maternal sides. it is said that from fariduddin upto him none was inclined towards worldly gains but was solely devoted to acquire traditional as well as spiritual knowledge. His father's name was Shaikh mubariz who was a renowned sufi and scholar of his age. His mother also belonged to an educated accomplished and devout family. she was the doughter of Qazi Ismail of Hargam Qazi Abdul Waiz was his maternal cousin.
According to his own discription shaikh studied his primary book with the guidance of his father and sufi scholar who not only instructed him traditional sciences but also taught him some basic mystical techniques. Shaikh was a precocious student who successfully completed basic course of religious and literary education. Shaikh had great inclination towards traditional education from his early life. His interest in seeking knowledge was so great that when he was in his twenties heavy family and other responsibilities which fell to him after his father's death did non hinder his progress in further studies and meditation. He moved to Lahore quite far away from his native place.This happend after 1605 A.D He became disciple of great scholars of that time in lahore. He was reckoned among the most prominent disciples of Mulla Abdul Salam Lahori in Lahore, he received knowledge in all of its aspects, by Abdul salam Lahori, a mine of rational and traditional learning and a disciple of Amir fatehullah Shirazi.
During the period he received education in Lahore Sadullah Khan and Mulla Mir Khurasani were his colleagues. they entered into an agreement that whoever among them would reach a high position, he would provide the others a chance for progress. after completing his education Shaikh Muhibbulah Allahabadi returned to his home town and after a search for livlihood here and there he started teaching in his village. He regularly delivered lectures on the subjects of Islam and earned a great reputation but was not satisfied there. His mind and spirit wanted something more so he visited renowned centres of learning and religion to meet scholars and saints.
it is said while he was walking down the streets in Delhi Nawab Sadullah Khan his old friend and Prime minister of Shahjahan happened to pass by in his palanquin [palki] their eyes met.
Shaikh immediately averted his gaze and entered a nearby shop. Nawab Sadullah Khan told his men to bring that man to his house with respect. The Nawab Sadullah welcomed him royally. Sadullah khan told Shahjahan about his friend's amazing intellect and talent and said infact he deserves to be prime minister, i am only fit to be his assistant. Shahjahan was very much surprised to here such an admission from a prime minister and was impatient to meet that man.
The emperor asked many questions to which he had never find satisfactory answers. Immediately Shaikh was appointed minister. According to court's customs he was brought at the tomb of Kawaha Kutubuddin Bakhtiyar kaki with guard of honour. when shaikh reached near Qutub Minar got down and asked the guards to wait as he will go to the tomb on foot and alone. the guards waited a day and night then they became restless. the commander of the troop went to the tomb and enquired, the caretaker told him that yesterday there had been a richly dressed gentleman who put off his rich clothes inside and borrowed a lungi and shirt and went back. The soldiers searched him everywhere but returned empty hands. it seems while he was at his prayers inside, the mystically inclined minister heard a voice which told him that he was not brought into this world to reform the matters of the manifest rather to correct the latent affairs, on one hand Shaikh was guided to go to Gangoh and other Shaikh Abu Sayeed Gangohi too got the guidance from Bakhtiyar Kaki that shaikh Muhibbullah is handed over to him. When Shaikh Muhibbullah came to Shaikh Abu Sayeed Ganghohi the latter was teaching 'Lamaat' of Iraqi After finishing his teaching Shaikh Abu Sayeed turned towards him and said opologetically,' you are an Alim [learned man] Shaikh replied you are an Arif [gnostic] any way Shaikh Muhibbullah became the disciple of Shaikh Abu Sayeed a notable saint of Chishti Sabri order who like his eminent grand father Shaikh Abdul Quddus Gangohi was a great panthiest. Shaikh Muhibbullah developed a firm faith in the validity of the doctrine of unity of Being [Wahdat-ul-wujud] under his guidance. Shah Abu Sayeed was also deeply impressed by his scholarship and spiritual vision.
Shah abu Sayeed taught him all the rules and regulations of Chishtiyah Sabiryah silsilah. Shaikh Muhibbullah prayed and dilidently practiced the mystic exercises and perfomed the mystical path in such a short time that other fellows became envious to him. since Shaikh's talent about latent affairs and capabilities was interrelated with Wilayat-e-Moosavi his spiritual guide [peer] nurturing complative thoughts about Allah directed him to sit in his cell [Hujrah] for forty days but only a few days had passed when his peer seeing his tremendous spiritual powers went to the door of the Hujrah saying that
'O' Muhibbullah! come i have taken you to God and bestowed upon you the spiritual sovereignty [Wilayat] of the east' other disciples bieng depressed, respectfully complained that they had been endeavouring for a pretty long time and never got the sweet water of Union, and he never uttered such words, but to that novoice, who had not tasted the flavour [hardship] of meditation he showed favour with such a blessing Shaikh Abu Sayeed replied that Muhibbullah was such a man that had brought candle in one head and fire in the other, as soon as it was whiffed it became lighted. that was the grace of God which he bestowed upon whomever He liked. How could he delay when God has hastened Shaikh Muhibbullh himself narrates this incident. The respected spiritual guide having bestowed the vicegerency upon the faqeer granted leave, by his grace and kindness to depart while two or three days of Chillah were left. As it displeased some of his disciples because man is bound to be envious, he said that what ever was unveild to him with in a few days, was not disclosed to you by twenty or more years. what can be done? this favour is the favour of Allah.
Shaikh Abu Sayeed sharpened Muhibbullah's interest in asceticism and Wahdatul wujud. However after completing his mystical course and getting vicegerency from Shaikh Abu Sayeed he returned to his home. He stayed there for sometime and engaged himself in writing some works but soon he found that place unsuitable for him, so he left sadarpur and come to Rudauli and visited tomb of Shaikh Ahmad Abdul Haq Rudaulvi. there he was greatly profitted and blessed by special offerings and revelation.
A part from his scholarship Shaikh was a man great personal charm
Abdul Rahman the author of Miratul Asrar writes that when Shaikh Muhibbullah reached the mausoleum of Shaikh Abdul Haq i was also there. Shaikh stayed with me and we held discussions with much warmth. I was deeply impressed by Shaikh's warm personality and rare gift of eloquence and exposition as a preceptor. after getting divine guidance from Shaikh Abdul Haq we left his tomb together and I took him to my house where he stayed for a few days and then again he started his journey. After visiting some other Chishti centres he proceeded to Allahabad. He visited the tomb of Shaikh Husamuddin Manikpuri at Manikpur. finally he came to Allahabad in 1628 A.D and stayed at the place where his grave is situated. seeing the crowd of the followers and discples Qazi Ghasi gave in gift his big house at Bahadurganj to the Shaikh which became his permanent adobe and centre of his preaching. Shaikh kept getting divine blessings during his stay in Allahabad for over twenty years..
Shaikh Muhibbullah Allahabadi died on 9th Rajab 1058 A.H./30th july 1648 A.D and burried in Kydganj where he stayed first time after arrival in Allahabad...
Apart from the books stated above other books of Shaikh are.
GHAYATUL GHAYAT, KITABUL MUBIN, SIRRUL KHAWAS, TURUQUL KHAWAS, RISALAH-E-WUJUD-E-MUTLAQ, RISALAH-E-SAIR-ILAHI, RISALAH-E-LANATUL IKHWAN, RISALAH-E-TAWHID and IMALATUL QULUB.
Manusscripts of most of the Shaikh's works are preserved and available for scholars in his Kkanqah's library which is under the supervision of Shah Mohammad Saifullah, Sajjadah Nasheen of Shaikh's Khanqah. Some of them are Shaikh's handwriting.
1. SEHRUKNI/AWRAD-E-MUHIBBI 3
2.MANAZIR-E-AKHASSUL KHAWAS 4
3. ANFASUL KHAWAS 2
4.SHARH-E-FUSUSUL HIKAM 3
5. MAKHTUBATE-E-SHAIKH 2
6. TARJUMATUL KITAB 1
7. AQAIDUL KHAWAS 3
8. IBADATUL KHAWAS 1
9.HAFT AKHAM 4
11. SHARH-E-TASWIYAH 1
12. GHAYATUL GHAYAT 1
13. RISALAH-E-SAIR-E-ILAHI 1
in short every writing of Shaikh presents proof of his deep insight, subtlrty of thoughts, realities of Tasawwuf and description of 'MAARIF' go above those having superficial consciousness. His all books at various places invite readers towards deep thoughts and contemplation. His ideas and thoughts are great value and significance for understanding the intellectual history of his period. If all his works are published an important aspect of the medieval muslim mystical thought will come to the light.
1. ABDUL HAI, NUZHATUL KHAWATIR VOL V,P.323
2. SYED SHAUKAT HUSAIN ZIKRUL MARIF PP.14,15
3. MASUD ANWAR ALAVI. KWAKIB P.55
4.SHAIKH MUHIIBBULLAH SHARH-E-TASWIYAH
5. SHAIKH MUHIBBULLAH MANAZIR-E-AKHASSUL KHAWAS
6. YUSUF HUSAIN KHAN ISLAMIC CULTURE P.315
7.TAHIR ALI ISLAMIC CULTURE/MAATHIRUL UMARA VOL III P 606
8.RAHMAN ALI TAZKIRAH-E-ULAMA-E-HIND P.175
9. SHAIKH MUHIBBULLAH SHAIKH IBN ARABI P.76
10. A.A RIZVI HISTORY OF SUFISM IN INDIA VOL II P 269 VOL II P.98 VOL II P.606-607
11. HAFIZ PROF. M.TAHIR ALI ISLAMIC CULTURE P.252
11.YUSUF HUSAIN KHAN ISLAMIC CULTURE P 321
12.MAULANA QAMARUZZAMAN AQWAL-E-SALAF P 191
13. SHAIKH MUHIBBULLAH MANAZIR-E-AKHASSUL KHAWAS MANZAR 23
1.NIZAMI BADAYUNI QAMUSUL MASHAHIR
2.DR NISAR AHMAD FAROOQUI
3.MAQBOOL AHMAD SAMDANI HAYATE JALEEL
4.KHALIQ AHMAD NIZAMI TARIKHI MAQALAT
5.KHALIQ AHMAD NIZAMI TAREEKH-E-MASHAIKH-CHISHT
6.MUHAMMAD NIZAMUDDIN TARIKH-E-MASHAIKH-E-ALLAHABAD
SHAHI MASJID KHANQAH HAZRAT SHAH MUHIBBULLAH BAHADURGANJ ALLAHABAD
THE MOST CONTROVERSIAL WORK OF SHAIKH MUHIBBULLAH ALLAHABADI IS HIS TASWIYAH IN WHICH HE ARDENTLY DEFENDS THE THEORIES OF WAHDATUL WUJUD THIS SHORT TREATISE ASSERTS SHAIKH'S FIRM BELIEF IN WAHDATUL WUJUD AND INVITES SUFIS TO SUBMERGE THEMSELVES IN THOUGHTS OF UNITY OF BEING. THIS TREATISE PROVIDES VALUABLE INFORMATION REGARDING WAHDATUL WUJUD.
TASWIYAH ESTABLISHES THE IDENTITY BETWEEN GOD AND WORLD. THE OTHER DOCTRINE OF THIS SHORT AND PROVOCATIVE TREATISE IS THAT JIBRAEL OF EVERY PROPHET IS WITHIN HIM. REVELATION DOES NOT COME FROM OUTSIDE, IT IS AN INSPIRATION FROM WITH IN THE PROPHET.
A PERSIAN COMMENTARY ON TASWIYAH WAS WRITTEN BY KHAWAJA KHURD THE SON OF BAQIULLAH , IN ORDER TO POPULARISE THE WORK AMONG SCHOLARS WHO WERE UNABLE TO UNDERSTAND IN ARABIC.
TASWIYAH WAS VEHEMENTLY OPPOSED BY A GROUP OF ULAMA. THE REPUTED SCHOLAR MULLA MAHMOOD JAUNPURI WROTE IN REFUTATION OF TASWIYAH A TREATISE ENTITLED 'HIFZUL IMAN FI RADDIL TASWIYAH.,,
AFTER THE DEATH OF SHAIKH MUHIBBULLAH WHEN AURAGZEB CAME TO KNOW ABOUT THE OBJECTIONABLE PASSAGES OF THE BOOK HE CALLED SHAIKH MOHAMMADI FAYYAZ A DISCIPLE OF SHAIKH EITHER TO EXPLAIN PASSAGES OR TO BURN THE BOOK IN PUBLIC. SHAIKH MUHAMMADU FAYYAZ APOLOGISED THAT HE HAD NOT COME UP TO THE STAGE WHERE HE CAN EXPLAIN HIS SHAIKH,S VIEWS, NOR HE HAD NEED TO BURN THE COPIES OF THE BOOK.
NEITHER THE OPPOSITION OF ULAMA NOR THE THREAT OF KING COULD AFFECT THE POPULARITY OF THE WORK WHICH WAS COMMENTED BY A NUMBER OF EMINENT PERSONS LIKE SHAIKH ABDULLAH DEHALVI' KHAWAJA KHURD' SHAH KALIMULLAH AND AMANULLAH BANARSI ETC..
PLACE BAHADURGANJ ALLAHABAD U.P INDIA